Changing the Guard: Developing Democratic Police Abroad (Studies in Crime and Public Policy)
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Dealing with this problem may involve efforts to control and contain both conflict between these groups and confrontations between the state and relevant armed factions. Over time, as security is consolidated, institutional strengthening of state entities and social and economic reintegration interventions for armed actors may play an important role in promoting citizen security Muggah, Indeed, the peace-building and peacekeeping communities are addressing many of these kinds of no war no peace scenarios in the course of their work Muggah and Krause, The rise of so-called police-keeping as part of UN peace support mandates—including in Haiti—is testament to this.
This is because most of those involved in criminal activities — and this applies to a broad range of such endeavours — typically lack wider social and economic opportunities. Indeed they may fall back on criminality to secure protection from other criminal groups or to support themselves. Under these circumstances controlling crime may involve a heavy investment in social welfare policies that provide opportunities for vulnerable populations to build better connections into the social and economic system.
Integrating these communities and their populations more effectively into state services and programmes may involve developing strategies to help build and extend public services at the micro-level into the areas and populations most affected by criminal activities and violence. While there is growing political support and rising investment —including from donor countries in North America and Western Europe—this will be difficult to sustain in the absence of hard metrics of success.
What is more, it will be hard to replicate citizen security innovations without credible documentation of how activities were sequenced and without solid monitoring and evaluation. Notwithstanding a wealth of scientific impact evaluations in the North American and Western European setting, there is a surprisingly limited number of studies of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Citizen security initiatives were categorised according to their spatial, temporal and thematic scale, distribution, and budgets. In addition to tracking regional, national and municipal activities in a number of countries, the dashboard also considers the activities of multilateral and non-governmental sources such as the IADB, OAS, UNDP and World Bank, among others.
While the assessment is not exhaustive, it is nevertheless complete and facilitates an analysis of trends Muggah and Aguirre, In other words, the goal was not just to assess the quantity of interventions—which, given the 1, collected across 26 countries, is sizeable. One way to do this is to canvass the published, grey, and private literatures for impact evaluations.
An intensive review of the literature detected some evidence in the criminological literature of the merits of deterrence-based strategies, interventions focused on at-risk youth, environmental design approaches, and approaches emphasising housing and tenure. But the fact is that there are very few peer-reviewed articles, and even fewer robust experimental designs that measure outcomes. All but one of the evaluations identified a positive outcome. In these cases, the supporters of the intervention maintained documentation of outcomes such as the number of beneficiaries, or some statement on results.
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The legacy of citizen security interventions is far-reaching. There are, on the one hand, obvious security and safety dividends arising from the interventions discussed in this chapter. But there are also far-reaching transformational influences of citizen security on security sector and wider democratic governance.
Citizen security can and is reshaping security policies both domestically and intra-regionally 30 and generating important gains in the short, medium and long terms. Yet it is worth recalling that citizen security is a necessary but insufficient pathway to improving safety and preventing violence. It must also be accompanied by efforts to reduce concentrated poverty, chronic income and social inequality, and unemployment, especially among younger population groups. It is vital that national, state and city leaders mobilise and sustain social and economic policies, not least initiatives that keep adolescents and teens in school and in the labour market.
There are positive examples of this, including in Brazil and Mexico where targeted conditional cash transfer programmes and redistribution policies are correlated with reductions in homicides and sexual violence. While there are still conservative supporters of heavy-handed approaches to crime prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean, many governments are nevertheless seeking to strike a balance — investing in both punitive and preventive measures. Likewise, improvements in the quantity and quality of data collection on crime 32 are also leading to smarter policing and the more efficient delivery of judicial services to those who need them most.
These are all deeply challenging tasks, and all demand enlightened leadership if they are to be achieved.
The greatest successes arise when policies are sustained across multiple electoral terms and are genuinely owned by citizens themselves. Abt, T.
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