Distributed Network Systems: From Concepts to Implementations
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Overview of distributed network systems -- Ch. Modelling for distributed network systems : the client-server model -- Ch. Communication paradigms for distributed network systems -- Ch. Internetworking -- Ch. Interprocess communication using message passing -- Ch.
Interprocess communication using RPC -- Ch. Group communications -- Ch. Reliability and replication techniques -- Ch. Security -- Ch. Distributed networks are part of distributed computing architecture, in which enterprise IT infrastructure resources are divided over a number of networks, processors and intermediary devices.
A distributed network is powered by network management software, which manages and monitors data routing, combining and allocating network bandwidth, access control and other core networking processes. Distributed networks and processing work together to deliver specialized applications to different remote users. This means that an application may be hosted and executed from a single machine but accessed by many others. Toggle navigation Menu. Home Dictionary Tags Networking.
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Distributed Network. Ordered multicast Figure 8. Steps taken for RMP to multicast an ordered message Figure 9. A system Figure 9. Fault, error, and failure Figure 9. The bathtub curve Figure 9. Reconfigurable duplication architecture Figure 9. Reliability block diagram of a series system Figure 9.
The example reliability block diagram Figure 9. Reliability block diagram of the parallel system Figure 9. Example reliability block diagram Figure 9. Reduced reliability block diagram Figure 9. State diagram of a TRM system Figure 9. Reduced state diagram of a TMR system Figure 9. Reliability block diagram of a simple parallel system Figure 9. Impact of the fault coverage Figure 9. Reliability comparison of TMR and a single module Figure 9.
Deadlock Figure 9. False deadlock Figure 9. Distributed deadlock detection Figure 9. Hot replication implementations Figure 9. The active replication scheme Figure 9. The scenario of requests arriving in different orders Figure 9. Single private key encryption Figure Key distribution server Figure Public key encryption Figure Packet filter in a router Figure Internet firewall Figure A hierarchical model of a DDoS attack Figure Key methods used before making an effective DDoS attack Figure Active defense cycle Figure The generic reactive system architecture Figure A DMM agent Figure Sensors and actuators Figure Tunnelling multicast packets between subnets Figure The generic sensor architecture Figure A distributed replication system Figure Replication manager and database server Figure Using polling sensors Figure Using event sensors Figure Using embedded DMMs Figure Using polling sensors for network partitioning Figure Using event sensors for partition-tolerant applications Figure Hybrid architecture of WBDB agent-based Example of Mobile applications Figure IP Tunneling Figure Operation of Mobile IP on care-of address Figure Operation of Mobile IP on collocated care-of address Figure The mobility agents either home or foreign multicast Agent Advertisement Figure The message format of Registration Reply Figure Bi-directional Tunneled Multicast Method Figure Network Topology of the Simulation Figure Message delivery delays Figure Number of delivered messages Figure A distributed file system structure Figure NFS structure Figure Interface inheritance and implementation inheritance Figure DCOM security Figure DCOM binary specification Distributed systems enable people to cooperate and coordinate their activities more effectively and efficiently.
The key purposes of the distributed systems can be represented by: resource sharing, openness, concurrency, scalability, fault-tolerance and transparency [Coulouris et al ]. Resource sharing. In a distributed system, the resources - hardware, software and data can be easily shared among users. For example, a printer can be shared among a group of users.
The openness of distributed systems is achieved by specifying the key software interface of the system and making it available to software developers so that the system can be extended in many ways. The processing concurrency can be achieved by sending requests to multiple machines connected by networks at the same time.
A distributed system running on a collection of a small number of machines can be easily extended to a large number of machines to increase the processing power.
Machines connected by networks can be seen as redundant resources, a software system can be installed on multiple machines so that in the face of hardware faults or software failures, the faults or failures can be detected and tolerated by other machines. Distributed systems can provide many forms of transparency such as: Location transparency, which allows local and remote information to be accessed in a unified way; 1 A basis of this form of computing is distributed computing which is carried out on distributed computing systems.
These systems comprise the following three fundamental components: personal computers and powerful server computers, local and fast wide area networks, internet, and systems, in particular distributed operating systems, and application software. In this book we are interested in the last two issues of distributed computing systems: networks and system and application software. With the flourishing of the Internet and the current quick development of e- commerce, it is very important in designing distributed systems to consider not only traditional applications but also the requirements of distributed computing based on the Internet.
It was also apparent that to utilize the full potential of such computer networks, international standards would be required to ensure that any system could communicate with any other system anywhere in the world. The OSI reference model is a seven-layer model for inter-process communication. Its architecture is comprised of application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link and physical layers, and the corresponding protocols, as depicted in Table 1.
The detailed descriptions of these layers are given in Chapter 4. The detail of these layers is also given in Chapter 4. The term network fault tolerance refers to how resilient the network is against the failure of a component. Why fault tolerance in a networked world? This concern is crucial for e-commerce sites and mission-critical business applications.
- Implementing Distributed Systems – Client-Server Technology;
- File Extensions and File Formats;
- Glossary of Network Terms!
- Client-Server Technology!
Expensive and powerful servers and system components that are designed as stand-alone systems can be very reliable, but even an hour of downtime per month can be deadly to online-only businesses. For example, server clusters are increasingly used in business and academia to combat the problems of reliability since they are relatively inexpensive and easy to build [Buyya ] [TBR ]. By having multiple network servers working together in a cluster and using redundant components such as more than one power supply and RAID hard drive subsystems, the overall system uptime in theory can approach percent.
However, server clusters are only a part of a chain that links business applications together. The web site then processes the request and returns the requested HTML page via the same or another chain of routers, firewalls and network devices. The strength of this chain, in terms of reliability and performance, will determine the success or failure of the business, but a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, and the longer the chain, the weaker it is in general. Intuitively, the following two ways can be used to make such a chain stronger: one is the use of redundancy replication and concurrency parallelism techniques, and the other is to increase the reliability of the weakest link of the chain.
In particular, Internet-connected resources have the following characteristics: Unreliable communications; Unreliable resources computers, storage, software, etc. Communication network reliability depends on the sustainability of both hardware and software. It is possible that, depending on failure senario, a variety of network failures can last from a few seconds to days.
Thus, the emphasis was on the element- level network availability and, in turn, the determination of overall network availability. However, other types of major outages have received much attention in recent years. Such incidents include accidental fiber cable cut, natural disasters, and malicious attack both hardware and software. These major failures need more than what is traditionally addressed through network availability.
These types of failures cannot be addressed by congestion control schemes alone because of their drastic impact on the network. Such failures can, for example, drop a significant number of existing network connections; thus, the network is required to have the ability to detect a fault and isolate it, and then either the network must reconnect the affected connections or the user may try to reconnect it if the network does not have reconnect capability.