The Conundrum

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Self-harm is so taboo that there is limited public discussion about how to tackle it.

This warrant further exploration of this construct. Therefore, this article aimed to reflect on previous PE fit literature its background, importance, dimensionality, common obstacles and use it as a framework to direct attention to possibly underexplored areas of fit. Based on the foundations of previous PE fit literature, numerous conclusions regarding fit are reached, practical implications regarding fit are discussed, and recommendations for future fit research are made.

Although there may be incongruence regarding the direction of PE fit, its dimensionality, measurement, and the way forward to name a few ; one thing is for sure: we live in exciting times of fit research! For journal preprint policies, see SHeRPa.


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Thank you for your patience. Created on. Last edited. The top of the corporate ladder remains stubbornly male, and the few women who reach it are paid significantly less than the men that they join there. This is despite the fact that companies are trying harder than ever to help women to climb higher. No-nonsense formerly male clubs such as IBM where two decades ago blue-suited identikit white men drove the company close to bankruptcy , GE where the culture was not exactly female-friendly during the long rule of its legendary leader Jack Welch and BP where long hours at sea on windy oil rigs were a career booster have appointed senior executives to be in charge of diversity.

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Such companies no longer see the promotion of women solely as a moral issue of equal opportunity and equal pay. They have been persuaded of the business case for diversity. It has long been known that mixed groups are better at problem solving than like-minded ones. But the benefits of diversity are greater than this. For some companies the push towards greater diversity has come from their customers.

The Conundrum of High Electricity Prices | News | Gerard Reid

Other companies surprisingly fail to reflect the diversity of their customers. Its shareholders may wonder if it would do even better if the gender ratios at the top were less skewed. They worry in general about the ageing populations of the developed world.

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But particular industries have other reasons for broadening their recruitment trawl. The big accounting firms, for example, had their reputations seriously dented by the demise of Enron and its auditor Arthur Andersen just before they had an unprecedented increase in business as a consequence of the extra duties imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley act. A consequence is that they have had to extend their recruitment and promotion efforts to more women.

But up or out can scarcely accommodate maternity leave, so it is no surprise that the industry loses twice as many women as men from the middle rungs of its career ladder. Orit Gadiesh, the chairman of Bain, a rival, is a notable exception to the general exclusion of women from the top ranks.


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However, an earlier career in the Israeli army may have provided essential skills for her to reach the top. Some firms' diversity programmes are working. At IBM , there are now seven women among its 40 top executives. The firm's six new business divisions are all headed by men. By contrast, Alcan, a Canadian multinational metal manufacturer, has made extraordinary progress.

Three out of its four main businesses are now headed by women including the bauxite and alumina business.

Self-harm is so taboo that there is limited public discussion about how to tackle it.

Why is it proving so difficult for women to reach the top of corporations? Are they simply less ambitious, less excited by the idea of limitless albeit first-class travel, late nights and the onerous responsibilities imposed by mounting regulation? Catalyst, on the other hand, says that its research shows that women and men have equal desires to have the CEO job. First comes the exclusion from informal networks. In many firms jock-talk and late-night boozing still oil the wheels of progress. In America and elsewhere it has become almost traditional for sales teams to take potential clients to strip clubs and the like.

These activities specifically exclude most women.

Yasmin Jetha, a Muslim of Asian origin who made it to the board of Abbey, a British bank and a FTSE company until it was taken over last year by Spain's Banco Santander, says that although she neither drinks alcohol nor supports a rugby team, she made a point in her career of participating in industry-wide events where the opportunities for exclusion are less. More and more women in business are forming their own networks, which also help to counter male clubbishness. Everyone is unconsciously biased and there is strong evidence that men are biased against promoting women inside companies.

This was a central point in the landmark case in America of Price Waterhouse v Hopkins , where Ann Hopkins sued her employer when she was not given a partnership. She eventually won her case in the Supreme Court. Since then some companies have begun to take special steps to guard against bias. Greg and Sarah live in a predominantly white neighborhood and send their children to a predominantly white private school. But what does that say about us then?

For two years I conducted research with 30 affluent white parents and their kids in a Midwestern metropolitan area. They registered the unfairness in leveraging their exclusive social networks to get their teenagers coveted summer internships when they knew disadvantaged kids were the ones who truly needed such opportunities. They felt guilty when they protectively removed their children from explicitly racist and contentious situations because they understood that kids of color cannot escape racism whenever they please. Still, those were the choices they made.

Parents felt caught in a conundrum of privilege — that there was an unavoidable conflict between being a good parent and being a good citizen. Many parents, in fact, expressed a desire to have their ideals and parenting choices align.

The Conundrum of Progressivism

In other words, things have been working out pretty well for affluent white kids, so why rock the boat? And so parents continue to make decisions — about where to buy a house, which school seems best, or whether robotics club or piano lessons is a better after-school activity — that extend the advantages of wealth. Those choices, however, have other consequences: They shape what children think about race, racism, inequality and privilege far more than anything parents say or do not say.

These were kids who were growing up in an almost exclusively white, suburban social environment outside the city. Enter the Fray: First takes on the news of the minute from L. The kids who lived in the city but attended predominantly white private schools told me that they were smarter and better than their public schools peers.